It is not certain that such a transfer of copyright is generally permitted. [28] Developers or research institutes, public museums or art galleries may pursue excessive policies that stipulate that copyright in research, content, intellectual property, jobs or funds may not be transferred to third parties, either commercially or elsewhere. Normally, a single author signs on behalf of all authors, perhaps without their conscience or permission. [25] A full understanding of copyright transfer agreements requires a solid understanding of “legal language” and copyright in an increasingly complex licensing and copyright landscape[note 1][note 2] for which there is a steep learning curve for librarians and researchers. [29] [30] Thus, in many cases, authors may not even have the right to transfer full rights to publishers or agreements have been amended to make available complete texts on repositories or archives, regardless of the subsequent publishing contract. [31] The timing of the transfer of rights is in itself problematic for several reasons. First, the transfer of copyright, usually related to publication, means that it is rarely freely transferred or acquired without pressure. [25] Second, it becomes very difficult for an author not to sign a copyright transfer agreement, as the publication is related to the advancement of his career (publication or inheriting/printing of publication) and the time that can be lost if the revision and publication process needs to be restarted. There are power dynamics that do not benefit authors and that often jeopardize certain academic freedoms.

[26] This could partly explain why authors of scientific research, unlike all other sectors where original creators receive fees or royalties, generally receive no payment from publishers. This also explains why many authors seem to continue to sign their rights, while not agreeing with the justification for these rights. [27] This boils down to a fundamental divergence between the subject matter of copyright (i.e. granting an author the free choice of dissemination of works) and its application, given that authors lose those rights during the transfer of copyright. These fundamental conceptual violations are underscored by the popular use of sites such as ResearchGate and Sci-Hub for illegal file sharing by academics and the general public. [32] [33] [34] [35] [36] In fact, a widespread and unrestricted transfer helps to advance science faster than Paywall`s articles, so the transfer of copyright does a fundamental disservice to the entire research enterprise. [37] It is also highly counterintuitive that learned societies, such as the American Psychological Association, actively monitor and remove copyrighted content they publish on behalf of authors,[Note 3] as this is not considered in the best interests of authors or the reuse of published research and is a sign that the copyright transfer system is counterproductive (because the original authors of any control do not include it. are not included. e on and rights to his own works).

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