New Zealand, Singapore and the United States have military units in Australia. New Zealand and Singapore forces are limited to small training units at ADF bases, with the New Zealand contingent consisting of nine personnel involved in air traffic control training. [216] Two squadrons of the Republic of Singapore Air Force, with a total of 230 soldiers, are deployed to Australia; 126 squadrons at the Oakey Army Aviation Centre and 130 squadrons at RAAF Pearce. [216] [248] Singapore forces also use the Shoalwater Bay Military Training Area in Queensland for large-scale exercises; Under a bilateral agreement, these can last up to 18 weeks per year and cover up to 14,000 Singaporeans. [249] The ADF supports military personnel in the Australian region through the Defence Cooperation Program. As part of this program, the ADF supports training, infrastructure, equipment and logistics and participates in joint exercises with countries in Southeast Asia and Oceania. The Pacific Patrol Boat Program is the largest activity in the defence program and supports 22 Pacific-class patrol boats operated by 12 Countries in the South Pacific. Other important activities include supporting the development of the Timor-Leste Defence Forces and Papua New Guinea`s Defence Forces, as well as supplying boats to Philippine forces. [259] Australia also contributes directly to the defence of Pacific countries by regularly making warships and aircraft to patrol their territorial waters; this includes the annual deployment of RAAF AP-3 Orions to the region as part of a multinational maritime surveillance operation. [260] [261] As part of an informal agreement, Australia is responsible for the defence of Nauru. [262] The United States has intelligence facilities in Australia and has regularly flowed into the country for training purposes. Intelligence services include the Pine Gap satellite tracking station near Alice Springs and the Harold E.

Holt Naval Communications Station near Exmouth, Western Australia. Pine Gap is jointly managed by Australian and U.S. personnel and the Harold E. Holt Naval Communications Station has been operated exclusively by Australia since 1999. [250] [251] In early 2007, the Australian government approved the construction of a new U.S. communications facility at the Defence Signals Directorate Australian Defence Satellite Communications Station near Geraldton, Western Australia, to provide a ground station for the U.S.-run global broadband system that partially funds Australia. [252] [253] The U.S. Army often uses Australian training areas and these facilities have been modernized to support joint training between Australia and the United States. [254] In addition to these facilities, between 200 and 300 U.S. military personnel are sent to Australia to contact the ADF.

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